International Journal of Oral and Dental Sciences (2016), No.3, Vol 1, May Issue  
1 . Guest Editorial
He who does not research has nothing to teach
Fouad Ayoub
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“He who does not research has nothing to teach”.

The responsibility to place the Faculty of Dental Medicine on the map of the leading institutions in the field of research in Lebanon and the region is a burden and a challenge that I carried and accepted since the moment I handled the position of Dean of this prestigious faculty. The goals were to promote oral health by establishing a collaborative approach to patient care through research-oriented education.

2 . Research Article
Establishment of supracrestal tissue dimension following crown lengthening procedure in humans
Fatme Hamasni, Zeina Majzoub
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Background: The standard application of a mean value of 2.04 mm for the biologic width has been demonstrated to result in inconsistent amounts of tooth extension following crown lengthening procedure (CLP). BW has been recently replaced by the height of supracrestal gingival tissues (SGT) that includes the BW and sulcular depth. The question whether SGT dimension established at tissue maturation postoperatively is not significantly different from the pre-surgical dimension has not been fully answered.

Objectives: The aims of the present prospective clinical investigation are to compare the preoperative and the 24-week height of SGT buccally, lingually/palatally and interproximally following surgical CLP and assess the temporal changes in the gingival marginal level from right after surgery to the 24-week healing time.

Material and Methods: Twenty adult systemically healthy patients requiring CLP were recruited for the study. CLP was performed at 33 teeth and the patients followed up to 24 weeks. The following parameters were recorded using a customized stent for measurement reproducibility: stent-gingival margin (SGM) (baseline, right after surgery, and 24 weeks), stent-bone crest (SBC) (baseline and 24 weeks).

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between SGT at baseline and at 24 weeks for any of the 4 tooth sides. Significant differences were found between SGM right after surgery and SGM at 24 weeks for the mesial and distal sides (P<0.001) in contrast to the buccal and lingual/palatal sides where such differences were not detected (P=0.63 and 0.64 respectively).

Conclusions: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest the following: 1) The presurgical SGT dimension can be used as a guideline measurement in crown lengthening as it is re-established apically with a similar apico-coronal dimension 24 weeks postoperatively; 2) over time, crown height extension is more significantly reduced at the interproximal aspects suggesting greater postsurgical tissue rebound interproximally.

Key Words: crown lengthening procedure, supracrestal gingival tissues, biologic width, osseous resection

3 . Research Article
Effect of ferrule design on fracture resistance of anterior teeth restored with bonded cast post and core
Loubna Shamseddine
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Aims: The concept of a ferrule appears established in fracture resistance, the superiority of any specific ferrule design has not been confirmed by research.The aims of the study is to compare fracture resistance of anterior teeth prepared according to three different ferrule design: standard internal tapering coronal walls, a contra bevels added to the cast post and flaring the entrance of the post.

Materials and Methods: Ninety plastic analogues of an upper incisor were endodontically treated and prepared with 6° taper of internal coronal residual walls on the 2mm of ferrule. Divided into three groups (n=30), one used as control group, the second with 30° bevel on the buccal and lingual internal walls and the third one with 30° taper on the buccal and lingual external walls. All analogues were restored with Ni-Cr alloy posts and crowns and exposed to a compressive load with a 1-kN cell at a crosshead speed of 0.05mm/min at 130° to the long axis until fracture occurred. Failure modes were observed, and the data of fracture resistance, in Newton, were collected. The tests of normality (Lilliefors) followed by Mann-Whitney test was used to test the strength between groups. Significant differences accepted at P<.05.

Results: Mean failure loads for the groups were respectively 1038.69 (±243.52) for the control group,1231.86 (±368.76) for the flaring group and 1078.89 (±352.21) for the contra beveled one.

Conclusion: Flaring the entrance of the root canal is a better approach for obtaining the maximal fracture resistance, while a contra bevel used as an anti-rotary device is not significant.

Keywords: Cast post and core, fracture resistance, ferrule design, contra bevel

4 . Research Article
Effect of cyclosporin A therapy and periodontal parameters on the severity of gingival overgrowth in renal transplant patients
Samia Abou Jaoude Farha, Zeina Majzoub
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Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate in adult renal transplant patients with CsA-induced gingival overgrowth a potential correlation between salivary and whole blood CsA concentrations and the gingival overgrowth (GO) and its relationship with periodontal parameters.

Materials and methods: Thirty three renal transplant patients (RTP) with GO were assessed for blood and salivary CsA levels using the monoclonal FPIA technique. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare differences in blood and salivary CsA. The association between GO severity and the other variables was evaluated using Spearman’s correlation.

Results: No significant correlation was observed between blood and salivary CsA levels. There was no significant correlation between severity of GO and either blood CsA or salivary CsA concentrations. A significant association was detected between severity of GO and all periodontal parameters.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that salivary CsA concentrations cannot be used instead of blood levels as an indicator of CsA bioavailability. The lack of significant correlation between blood/ salivary CsA levels and the severity of GO could indicate that drug metabolism is not crucial in GO expression and that periodontal variables can be more predictive of GO severity.

Key Words Cyclosporin A, gingival overgrowth, plaque index, renal transplants, whole blood levels, salivary level, monoclonal, FPIA, MERI.

5 . Research Article
Maxillary sinus size in different gender and sagittal skeletal classes: orthodontics and forensic interests
Antoine Daraze, Marwan Hoteit, Hiba Youness
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Background: Evaluation of the maxillary sinus dimensions by using lateral cephalograms for treatment planning, sex determination and forensics purposes is still wanting in the literature. However, none has been performed in Lebanese population.

Methods: A retrospective study on 115 lateral cephalograms of healthy young Lebanese male and female adults, age ranged from 22 to 26, was orthodontically conducted in order to investigate the maxillary sinus size in different gender and sagittal skeletal classes, and its distribution within vertical facial types. Five measurements were used to assess the maxillary sinus size: two linear and three areas. Maxillary sinus size parameters were compared between males and females using Mann-Whitney U tests. The outcome measures were assessed across the different categories of sagittal and vertical malocclusion using Kruskal-Wallis tests, it has been followed by a post-hoc pairwise comparaisons. Statistical significance was set at 0.05.

Results: All measures of maxillary sinus size displayed significant gender differences. When subjects were categorized into Class I, II and III only the lower sinus area differed significantly between the three groups. Only Class II hyperdivergent subgroup subjects were found to have significantly greater sinus length, total sinus area and upper sinus area when the assessment was based on ANB angle.

Conclusion: The findings were in agreement with recent studies done on CTs and CBCTs regarding the presence of a sexual dimorphism in the maxillary sinus size. The novelty of this research was the inclusion of the vertical dimension as a variable that showed significance in Class II hyperdivergent subjects. These results are also of interest to the forensic context when involving adult subjects.

Key words: Groove, root, attachment, concavities, acquired deformities.

6 . Review Article
Early diagnosis of initial carious lesions
Sawsan Nasreddine, Dani Daou, Antoine Choufani, Lamia Abiaad
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Dental caries (tooth decay) remains one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Caries begins with deficiency in essential minerals of the enamel surface which may be reversed at this stage by following rigorous hygiene practices and fluoridation. Caries diagnosis is an important part of the dentist’s daily work. Clinical diagnosis is currently based on two methods of detection, most commonly on visual inspection and dental explorer. X-ray dental exam can only detect lesions with a depth of at least 500 microns. This article provides an overview of various techniques available for the diagnosis of initial enamel carious lesions.

Keywords: dental caries diagnosis, DIAGNOdent, soprolife, dexis Carivu and the Canary system.

7 . Clinical case report
Deep retention mucocele of the retromolar region: a diagnostic challenge with a minimal invasive treatment procedure
Najwa Genno, Gabriel El Hajj
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Oral mucocele is probably the most common disorder of the minor salivary glands. It is a small-size, benign pathology. It often develops on the lower lip mucosa. In few cases, it grows to an unusual size and is rarely located in the retro molar area, thus hindering the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele in the retromolar area of a 48-years-old woman and to discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment modalities of such a lesion. The surgical procedure was initially meant to be an incisional biopsy of the lesion; it was modified during the intervention to add a marsupialisation as a means of ultimate treatment.

Keywords: case report, marsupialisation, minor salivary gland, oral, retention mucocele, retromolar.

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